Chapter 2: Pecking


… Although it is not clear what prompted the change, this sequence was soon succeeded by economic arrangements and social stratifications which gave rise to widespread misery, warfare, enslavement and human sacrifice. A hierarchy of human beings divided into classes of the very rich and the very poor; and slaves emerged.

Despite the general nature of this trend, it is important to point out that values determine to a great extent the essential cultural ingredients of each society. They also determine a society’s emotional, mental and physical equilibrium, and its felicitous or aggressive nature. Indeed, the determinant of morality lies in the way a society regards humanity. A society’s perception of humanity is greatly influenced by whether it sees man as distinct from, above, of, or as a part of nature. It is this perception of humanity that connects a society to the set of values by which it lives. It is what moulds the moral system by which it operates, the choices it makes, and its mode of ordering itself. It also acts as a reference point for its mode of production, how it spends its money or time, the kind of people it nurtures, and the relationship between them. Basically the morality of a society is the real value of that society.

This approach to life explains the difference in attitudes of societies which are guided by ‘market principles’ and ‘money concepts’ from those that are non-capitalistic and technologically simple. It explains the attitude to land, wealth and humanity…

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